Newsletter of the Peace and War Section of the American Sociological Association
To say this is an "interesting time" to be the Chair of the Peace and War section is an understatement. A name change election coming up, a controversy over an ASA award to a section member, new minimum numerical standard for sections, and a required "official budget" which must be submitted for ASA approval. But after our wonderful sessions in Toronto, it all seems worthwhile.
When we meet in San Francisco we will be celebrating our 20th anniversary as a section. I hope we will be able to rejoice in a greatly expanded membership - which we will have if each of us takes responsibility for asking one colleague or student to join the section this year. Not everyone will succeed, but if everyone tries, we will gain many new members. We are sending letters to ASA members not in the Peace and War section but who have listed conflict resolution, world conflict, or military sociology as one of their "interest" areas.
ASA now requires all sections to have a minimum of 300 members by the annual meeting in 1999 to continue as a regular section with an allotment of two sessions at the annual meeting. Sections falling below that number will be evaluated for continuation as a section on a series of qualitative measures - level of activity, having regular council and business meetings. If they are continued they will have only one session at the annual meeting. There is no doubt at all that the Peace and War section meets the activity standards. But we do not want to be marginalized as a second class section - so go after those new members.
At the business meeting, we had discussed the idea of providing a dialogue in our newsletter on the ASA award given to our member, Charles Moskos, and the protest of that award by several groups. This controversy is being covered in the fall issue of Footnotes which may have reached you already. David Segal will provide another perspective in our next newsletter.
The name change discussion resulted in a decision to have the members vote on three proposed name changes versus no name change. This will be included in the ASA regular spring elections. Thanks to John MacDougall and all the task force for leading this discussion this past year and at the annual meeting.
We now have an electronic discussion list for the Peace and War section thanks to Morten Ender (see the box announcement in this issue to subscribe). Also, our expanded web page is the great work of Lee Smithey. Visit the page at http://www.1a.utexas.edu/research/pwasa/ index.htm and thanks, Lee.
Now - on to San Francisco. Our sessions are listed elsewhere in this newsletter. I am still recruiting a co-organizer to work with Ruth Searles on the round table sessions. Please contact me if you are willing and able to help with this session.
Best wishes for a good fall and the holiday season coming up.
Mary Anna C. Colwell
During the 1997 ASA meeting in Toronto, Peace and War Section Chair Jennifer Turpin presented the Section's award for a distinguished career in teaching and research related to peace, conflict, and war to Professor William Gamson. Professor Gamson was one of the section pioneers, serving on the Council in 1979 and as Section Chair in 1981. Throughout his distinguished career his research has addressed many peace and war issues including the Cold War, nuclear weapons, social movements, and the politics of protest. His work with the Boston Media Study Group provided activists and social movement practitioners with superb insights into how to deal with the media and how to frame issues for public consumption.
As ASA President, Gamson elevated the status of peace and war research in sociology, initiating a task force on genocide as part of his agenda. His ASA Presidential Address, published in American Sociological Review was on "Hiroshima, the Holocaust, and the Politics of Exclusion."
Professor Gamson has articulated the linkages' between peace and war and other issues, including media, social movements, political sociology, media and social psychology. He has also served as the president of the Peace Science Society, on the National Research Council's Committee on International Conflict and Cooperation, and on the board of the Journal of Conflict Resolution.
In addition to his research and service record, Professor Gamson was recognized with the ASA's award for Distinguished Contributions to Teaching in 1987. Many members of the ASA Peace and War Section have drawn upon Gamson's research to develop their own insights and research programs in the field of peace research. it is indeed an honor for the Section to be able to recognize his immeasurable contributions to the field of sociology and to the broader community of practitioners and scholars concerned about human rights, violence, war, and injustice.
John MacDougall, UMass. Lowell
The section decided at the Toronto meetings to hold a referendum on changing our name. Members will have the choice of the status quo versus three alternatives--watch for details. My own personal view is that first, we do need to make a change, and second, the best new name is "peace, conflict and the military."
Why do I make this suggestion?
I think we do need to make some change, because on balance I believe this will enable us to recruit more members, and because it will make our section rather more representative of the diverse interests found among existing members. I realize the ASA rules allow us two years to increase our numbers from the current 230 or so, to the new required minimum of 300. That means we need to increase our membership by at least a third, if we are to be comfortably above the minimum. I also acknowledge that the ASA authorities, in pondering our future existence in 1999, will look at more than quantitative indicators of our viability. I further admit that we need to do much more than change our name if we are to recruit more members, but a name change will help make a difference in this regard.
Of the three alternatives to the status quo that will appear on the ballot, I believe "peace, conflict and the military" is best, even though I am somewhat sad to see us drop "war" from our name. My reasons are the following : 1) in the minds of many actual and potential members, "peace" readily leads to an association with "war;" 2) "conflict" is a partial synonym for war (recall how people talk about the Vietnam and Gulf conflicts?); 3) of the three alternative titles to "Peace and war," I think "peace, conflict and the military" provides the broadest umbrella spanning the subfields listed on our new section brochure; 4) at the special meeting in Toronto on possible name changes, I sensed that "peace, conflict and the military" was the alternative most widely acceptable to those present.
I hope there will be more discussion of our name in these pages.
*Comments on this proposal welcome, Ed.
Robert Schaeffer, San Jose State University
For scholars and the media, "globalization" means different things. Many use globalization to describe the growing inter-connectedness of the world. Going further, some argue that globalization will result in the creation of a more uniform, singular world, a view expressed in the title of William Greider's book: One World, Ready or Not (Simon & Schuster, 1997). But while I think inter-connectedness is an important characteristic of the contemporary world, I do not think that contemporary global developments which affect people around the planet, necessarily contribute to the creation of a singular, increasingly uniform world. Instead, developments that reverberate across the globe often have very different consequences for people in different settings, which may increase the distance between the separate social "worlds" that share space on the planet.
Weather systems provide a useful analogy. A low-pressure system that forms in the Pacific affects the weather of people living across North America. But this shared storm has very different consequences for people living along the path of the jet stream: it brings fog to people on the coast, rain to people in the foothills, snow to people in the mountains, and clear skies to people in the valleys beyond. As a result, people visited by the same storm system may experience changing weather in very different ways.
In my research, I have examined contemporary developments that have wide, global consequences. As I tracked them across the social landscape, I found that important developments produced diverse and often unexpected outcomes. For example, the U.S. decision to raise interest rates to battle inflation in the early 1980s had far-ranging, diverse and unexpected consequences in different settings. In the United States, it successfully slowed inflation, which assisted bond holders and consumers, but it also destroyed the savings and loan industry, contributed to rising homelessness, and ruined many small farmers. At the same time, high U.S. interest rates triggered a debt crisis throughout the second and third worlds, resulting in the imposition of painful "structural adjustment" or austerity programs in countries there. The silver lining in the debt-crisis cloud was that it crippled dictators and one-party regimes throughout much of the capitalist "third" and communist "second" worlds, contributing to widespread democratization during the 1980s and 1990s. So while changing U.S. interest-rate policies had global consequences - affecting people from Washington, D.C. to Peoria to Peru - people experienced global change in a very different ways. I In this instance, global change increased the economic distance between first, second, and third worlds, largely because austerity programs further impoverished debtor states; while it narrowed the political distance between them, largely because debtor states typically democratized. In this context, it is important to appreciate the diverse and complex meanings of shared gIobaI developments.
This kind of appreciation is also appropriate to peace-related issues. The collapse of dictatorships, capitalist and communist alike, brought an end to the Cold War and established democratic governments in dozens of countries around the world. Generally, civilian democrats took three steps to solve the economic problems they inherited from dictatorship: they opened their economies to foreign investment and trade; sold public assets or "privatized their economies; and demilitarized their economies by reducing standing armies and slashing defense budgets.'
For scholars and peace activists, this last development is a welcome and significant achievement. Global military spending fell about 14 percent between 1987 and 1991. In Latin America military spending fell about 25 percent or more, and in the former Soviet Union, military spending has fallen from $356 billion in 1987 to only $14 billion in 1997. But while democratization and the end of the Cold War has contributed to widespread demilitarization, it has been an uneven process. Democratization in South Korea and Taiwan, for instance, has not been accompanied by any appreciable demilitarization because their neighbors (North Korea and China) have neither democratized nor demilitarized. In East Asia, the legacy of partition acts as a brake on demilitarization, as it does in South Asia (between India and Pakistan) and in the Middle East, where the partition of Palestine and the still largely unresolved conflict between Israel and its neighbors has deterred meaningful democratization in most Arab states and prevented regional demilitarization.' Scholars must both be able to appreciate significant global change and expect important variations and exceptions to its general rules.
Another development related to peace and war is the emergence and proliferation of "separatist" ethnic-independence movements. While separatist movements on almost every continent share a common demand - political power in states of their own - the social meaning of separatism varies enormously in different settings: peaceful "divorce" in Czechoslovakia; uncivil war in the former Yugoslavia and in Sri Lanka; and negotiated struggle in Israel-Palestine. Again, commonplace developments can have very different social and Political meanings, in this case both peace and war.
Of course, when saying that globalization results in different social outcomes, it is important to remember that changes in different places are connected, joined by events - changing interest rates, the end of the Cold War - that are widely shared. Scholars and activists need to understand globalization in this fashion because the solutions they develop should take into account the diverse forms that problems take. It is easy to assume that if global problems are ubiquitous, a single solution or uniform approach should be developed to address that problem. But it may be that singular solutions are inappropriate because people experience global problems in different ways. Solutions and strategies must be appropriate to diverse needs and experiences. To return to the weather-system analogy, an umbrella is useful to people where it rains, but gloves and a coat are more appropriate where it snows. But consideration for people in both settings depends on an understanding of weather systems generally, knowing the direction and seed of change.
1. Robert Schaeffer, Understanding Globalization: The Social Consequences
of Political, Economic and Environmental Change, Lanham, MD: Rowman
and Littlefield, 1997.
The Peace and War Section opted to present two student paper awards this year, given that outstanding submissions came from both undergraduate and graduate students. The winners of the graduate student award was Niranjan Karnik, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign for his paper, "Covering Central Africa in Crisis: Imagery, War and Refuge." The undergraduate award went to Wei-Lin Wang, Wellesley College for her paper, "Problematizing the Resurgence of 'Korean Comfort Women."' Congratulations and best wishes to them both!
(Thanks to Laura Miller for compiling most of these announcements)
The American Association of University Women Educational Foundation provides dissertation, post-doctoral, and summer faculty fellowships for work on any subject. Their goal is to improve opportunities for high quality women scholars to succeed in their fields. (Act now: There has been an early November deadline recently). Contact: American Association of University Women Educational Foundation; Fellowships and Grants; 2201 North Dodge Street; P.O. Box 4030,- Iowa City, IA 52243-4030
The Mary Ingraham Bunting Institute of Radcliffe College offers a Peace Fellowship for women committed to domestic or international policy work, or actively engaged in finding peaceful and just solutions to conflict, either real or potential, among groups or nations. Involvement with peace issues may be of an activist or scholarly nature. Contact: The Mary Ingraham Bunting Institute of Radcliffe College,34 Concord Avenue; Cambridge, MA 02138 (617) 495-8212
The Center for International Security and Arms Control offers pre-doctoral and post-doctoral fellowships. The purpose of the program is to contribute to training in the fields of international security, defense planning, and arms control. Contact: Center for International Security and Arms Control 320 Galvez Street; Stanford, CA 94305,- (415) 723-9626
Center for International Studies University of Missouri-- St. Louis announces its Theodore Lentz Postdoctoral Fellowship for research in the area of global issues, international conflict, and peace studies. Contact: Center for International Studies; University of Missouri-- St. Louis; 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, MO 63121; (314) 553-5755
The Center for Science and International Affairs offers pre-doctoral and post-doctoral fellowships in science and international affairs. Focuses vary, but include international security, regional security, internal and ethnic conflict, the structure of the U.S. military establishment and nuclear weapons complex, international proliferation of weapons and prospects for control, arms control and confidence-building measures, and more. Contact: Center for Science and International Affairs; John F. Kennedy School of Government,- Harvard University; 79 John F. Kennedy Street,- Cambridge, MA 02138; (617) 495-3745
Ford Foundation International Affairs Research Grants for research and training in the areas of international economics and development; peace, security, and arms control; international refugees and migration; U.S. foreign policy; international relations, particularly in developing countries; international organizations and law; and foreign area studies primarily relating to Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Contact: Ford Foundation International Affairs Grants; 320 East Forty-third Street; New York, NY 1001 7,- (212) 5 73-5000
The Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation is interested in proposals that promise to increase the understanding of the causes, manifestations, and control of violence, aggression, and dominance in the modem world. The Foundation provides research grants and Ph.D. dissertation awards. Contact: The Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation 52 7 Madison Avenue; New York, NY 10022-4304 (212) 644-4907
Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace offers postdoctoral fellowships to candidates with full-time academic appointments resumable after the fellowship year, and prefers candidates who are three to seven years beyond their Ph.D. Proposals should embody empirical studies of significant policy issues in either domestic or international studies, within such fields as international relations, political science, and sociology. Contact: Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace,- Stanford University,- Stanford, CA 94305-6010
The Joan B. Kroc Institute For International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame A limited number of openings for visiting fellows at the Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies are available for the academic year 1998-99. During the fellowship, applicants should work on either the theme of the enhancement and enforcement of international norms, or that of religion, peace and violence. The Kroc Institute will offer successful applicants office space, communication facilities, library privileges, subsidized housing arrangements, and access to its activities. The Institute may also be able to provide funding for successful applicants.
For application forms and further information, please contact Ms. Clare White at the Kroc Institute, University of Notre Dame, PO Box 639, Notre Dame, Indiana, 46556; tel: (219) 631 6483; fax: (219) 631 6973; e-mail: Clare.V.White.email@example.com. Applications are due by Monday, 1 December 1997.
The Mershon Center at the Ohio State University offers postdoctoral fellowships for research in international security studies. Possible areas of interest: U.S. defense and foreign policy, international conflict resolution, military history, civil-military relations, democratic citizenship education. Contact: The Mershon Center,- The Ohio State University; 1501 Neil Avenue; Columbus, OH 43201-2602; (614) 292-6054
John M. Olin Institute for Strategic Studies offers pre-doctoral and post-doctoral fellowships in national security. Recent fellows have studied domestic and international security, military culture, international organizations and political norms, peacekeeping operations, civil-military relations, peace settlements, and democratization in former Soviet states. Contact: John M. Olin Institute for Strategic Studies; 1 73 7 Cambridge Street; Cambridge, MA 02138
Program on Peace and International Cooperation The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation offers research and writing grants for individuals. Projects should address the relationship between peace, security, violence, or cooperation in one or more of the following areas: the impact of the end of the cold war on the emergence of global law and organizations, military and security issues, the changing character of politics and economics, sustainable democracy, demographic shifts, prospects for settlement of violent conflicts, and the impact of domestic conflicts on international cooperation. Contact: Program on Peace and International Cooperation; The John D. and Catherine T MacArthur Foundation; 140 South Dearborn Street; Chicago, IL 60603; (312) 726-8000
U.S. Army Research Institute offers research grants to support research on a whole host topics of interest to the military in the past. Request grant announcement, which will detail current interests. Contact: U.S. Army Research Institute; 5001 Eisenhower Ave; Alexandria, VA 22333-5600.
United States Institute of Peace has solicited and unsolicited grants programs support work on research related to international peace and conflict resolution. Its Senior Fellowships on International Peace and Conflict Issues support practitioners and scholars working on projects concerning the sources and nature of international conflict and ways of managing conflict and sustaining peace. Contacts (Grants Program): United States Institute of Peace,- 1550 M Street, NW,- Suite 700,- Washington, DC 20005-1708,(202) 457-1700. Fellowships program Contact: United States Institute of Peace; Jennings Randolph Program for International Peace; 1550 M Street NW, Suite 700F,- Washington, DC 20005-1 708
Women in International Security offers postdoctoral fellowships for scholars interested in policy-relevant research in the area of international security, defined broadly. Proposals related to the security dimensions of other issues such as human rights and democratization, refugee/migration issues, and international trade are also welcome. Contact: Women in International Security; Center for International and Security Studies,- University of Maryland,- College Park, MD 20 742; (301) 405- 7612
The section now needs a volunteer to take over as chair of the Task Force on Genocide/Politicide/ Democide. If you are interested in volunteering or if you wish more information on the history and on the work involved in chairing the Task Force, contact Allen Grimshaw (E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org; Phone: 812-336-3771
The ASA Section on Peace & War now has an electronic discussion list. it is open to anyone who wants to subscribe (although only subscribers can post messages).
To subscribe, send a message to LISTSERV@LISTSERV.NODAK.EDU and in the body of the message type: SUBSCRIBE PEACE-AND-WAR YOURFIRSTNAME YOURLASTNAME
This list is provided by the University of North Dakota at Grand Forks and is monitored by Morten Ender, assistant professor of sociology and peace studies. For information contact email@example.com
The American Sociological Association is now requiring all regular sections to have a minimum membership of 300 by the annual meeting in 1999. All cur-rent members please to be sure to renew your section membership when ASA sends out the regular renewal notices. And encourage your colleagues and students to join (some members have paid for student memberships for some of their more promising students in order to encourage their involvement in ASA sections).
In addition to issuing new guidelines for section size, ASA has increased the dues for all sections to $10.00 (a $2.00 increase). Therefore, the Peace and War section dues will now be $12.00. The extra $2.00 for the section pays for our student paper awards and a reception at the annual meeting -- and some of the expenses required for a membership drive. Student membership remains $7.00.
Morten G. Ender. 1997 "Who Am I?": Autophotography as a Teaching and Learning Tool" the Great Plains Sociologist 10(l) (Fall)
Morten G. Ender, 1997 "E-mail to Somalia: New Communication Media Between Home and War Fronts" in Joseph D Behar (Ed.). Mapping Cyberspace: Social Research on the Electronic Frontier Oakdale, NY: Dowling College Press.
Stanford M. Lyman, Postmodernism and a Sociology of the Absurd and Other Essays on the 'Nouvelle Vague " in American Social Science (Fayetteville, AK: University of Arkansas Press, 1997).
Stanford M. Lyman. NATO and Germany: A Study in the Sociology of Supranational Relations (Fayetteville, AK: University of Arkansas Press, 1995).
John MacDougall, "Peace Movement Adaption at the State Level: the Case of Maine" in Coalitions and Political Movements: the Lessons of the Nuclear Freeze ' ed. Thomas R. Rochon and David S. Meyer (Rienner, 1997)
Laura L. Miller, "Do Soldiers Hate Peacekeeping? The Case of Preventive Diplomacy Operations in Macedonia," Armed Forces & Society, 23 (Spring 1997): 415-450.
Martin Patchen and David D. Bogumil. "Comparative Reciprocity During the Cold War." Peace and Conflict 3:37-58.
Robert K. Schaeffer. Understanding Globalization: The Social Consequences of Political, Economic and Environmental Change (Rowman and Littlefield)
Robert K. Schaeffer. Power to the People: Democratization Around the World (Westview/ HarperCollins).
Jackie Smith "Nonresponse Bias in Organizational Surveys: Evidence From a Survey of Groups and Organizations Working For Peace." Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Quarterly 26:359-368.
*Send announcements of your recent / new publications to jacsmith@,notesccsunysbedu
San Francisco ASA Conference: August 1998 Peace and War Section sessions. Both are open sessions. Submissions due by early January (See Footnotes for submission procedures and deadlines).
"The impact of peace movements on public policy: what have we learned in the past few decades". Organizer: Mary Anna Colwell (1628 Jaynes St., Berkeley, CA 94703; firstname.lastname@example.org) The Collective Behavior and Social Movements section will co-sponsor this session.
"Globalization and Inequality." Organizer: Jackie Smith, (Dept. of Sociology. SUNY, Stony Brook. Stony Brook, NY 11794-4356; email@example.com)
Ruth Searles of the University of Toledo (2744 Farrington, Toledo, OH 43606)is the coorganizer of the round table sessions.
Tbe Peace and War section will co-sponsor a session with the Sex and Gender section on the topic of sexuality in the military. In addition, Jill Quadagno allotted a "special session" on the topic "the role of inequality in creating and maintaining violence and vice versa" which is being organized by Mary Anna Colwell.
American Sociological Review reminds all ASA members that it "seeks to publish work o sociological significance and exceptional merit that advances the discipline. Advancing the discipline requires a commitment to rigor in theory and to creativity and diversity in method. For empirical contributions, the ASR champions neither qualitative nor quantitative evidence (good research often uses both), but rat@er compelling relevant evidence. The most recent data available on manuscripts submitted to ASR show that qualitative and theory manuscript are accepted at the same rate as are quantitative manuscripts. Send manuscripts to: Glenn Firebaugh American Sociological Review, Dept. Of Sociology Pennsylvania State University ; 206 Oswald Tower University Park, PA 16802.
Current Perspectives in Social Theory invites submissions for the 1999 volume, an annual journal dedicated to publishing articles across the spectrum of perspectives within social theory, conceived of in a broad and interdisciplinary sense. To submit a manuscript, send five copies and a one page abstract to: Jennifer M. Lehmann, editor, Current Perspectives in Social Theory Department of Sociology; 741 Oldfather Hall; The University of Nebraska; Lincoln, NE 68588-0324. Deadline for submission is April 1, 1998. Manuscripts received after I April will not be considered for the 1999 volume.
Geraldine Lee-Treewick and Stephanie Linkogle are editing a volume entitled Engendering Data and Danger for Routledge Press. They seek contributions, particularly one from a scholar who has done research in a war situation and can in some way reflect on the gender dimensions of this experience. Contact: Stephanie Linkogle, University of Manchester, U.K. firstname.lastname@example.org
Peace Review, a transnational, multidisciplinary quarterly, publishes essays on topics including war, violence, human rights, political economy, development, culture and consciousness, and the environment. Deadlines 22 October for thematic issue on "Third World Peace Perspectives." Send essays on and off themes of 2500-3500 words, on IBM or Mac disk to: Robert Elias, Editor. Peace Review. University of San Francisco; 2130 Fulton St. San Francisco,CA 94177 (email@example.com).
Information on Joining the Peace and War Section available from: ASA: 1722 N St. NW; Washington, D.C. 20036 (Phone-202-833-3410), or visit the section web site: http://www.la.utexas.edu/research/pwasa/index.htm