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Virginia Hall's Syllabus on Animals and Human Society Animals

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Animals and Society Syllabi

Virginia Aileen Hall

Animals and Human Society

SOC 204

Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology
Ohio University

 

Purpose of the Course

Much of human society is structured through interactions with non-human animals or through interactions with other humans about animals.  Yet, until very recently sociology has largely ignored these types of interaction. This course is designed to bring into the realm of sociological study the relationships that exist between humans and other animals.  A major focus will be on the social construction of animals in American culture and the way in which these social meanings are used to perpetuate hierarchical human/human relationships such as racism, sexism, and class privilege.  Animal/human interaction in several major social institutions-family, health, politics, economy, religion, and sports-will be studied.  Finally, we will examine several of the major philosophical positions about human social policy regarding the future of animal/human relations.  The course is not about animals per se, but about the differences that animals have made in human societies and the differences humans have made on the lives of animals.
 

Course Content

One book, Regarding Animals by Arnold Arluke and Clinton Sanders, will be required as a text and all other assignments will be available via electronic library reserve.  These reading assignments are starred (*) in
the "Resources" section.

The following topics will be covered in this course:

· The Social Construction of Animals
· Methods of Studying the Animal/Human Relationship
· Human/Animal Interaction as Symbolic Interaction
· The History of the Animal/Human Bond
· The Role of Animal/Human Relations in Maintaining Racism, Sexism, and Class Privilege
· Animals and Social Institutions: Family, Health, the Economy, Politics, Religion, and Sports
· The Future of Animal/Human Relationships: Balancing Perspectives on Policy Issues
 

Content:  Grade Requirements

The student's grade will be based on his/her performance on four criteria:
weekly quizzes, a paper, attendance, and a comprehensive final exam.

Quizzes:  At the end of each, week a short, multiple-choice and true-false type quiz will be given covering the readings and lecture material for that week.

Attendance:  Attendance will be recorded daily by means of a "signature  list" passed around the classroom during class time.

Paper:  Students will write a five-page position paper in which they take one of several positions regarding the debate over the line or boundary between humans and animals, supporting their position with material other than that assigned in class.  In writing this paper, students will be encouraged--as they will be throughout the course--to examine the evidence for a point of view and draw their own conclusions regarding an issue. This paper will be due on the last day of class.

Final Exam:  A comprehensive final exam consisting of multiple-choice, true false, and essay questions will be given during exam week.

These assignments will be weighted in the following manner:

Quiz Average:    55%
Attendance          5%
Paper:               20%
Final Exam         20%
 

Resources

Several video programs will be used.  Most of these are produced by the "Nature" series of  Public Broadcasting.  In addition to the discussion of these videos, I will be illustrating some lectures with slides using PowerPoint.  The videos include:

 "Why Dogs Smile and Chimps Cry"
 " Inside the Animal Mind"
 "A Conversation with Koko"
 "Animal Mummies"
 "Pet Love"
 "War Dogs"
 "To Love or Kill: Man Against Animal"
 "Urban Elephants"

Lecture material will be drawn from the following resources.  Those identified with asterix (*) are required readings for students.  These will be accessed through electronic reserve in the library (with the exception of the Arluke and Sanders text.)
 

The Social Construction of Animals

*Arnold Arluke and Clinton Sanders,  "Introduction: Bringing Animals to the Center," "The Human Point of View," and "The Institutional Self of the Shelter Worker" in Regarding Animals, 1996, Philadelphia: Temple University Press

Elizabeth A. Lawrence, "Neoteny in American Perceptions of Animals" in R.J. Hoage, (ed.) Perceptions of Animals in American Culture, 1989, Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Macintyre, Alasdair, "Humans as contrasted with, humans as included in the class of animals" in Dependent Rational Animals, 1999,Chicago: Carus Publishing Co.

*Ojoade, J. Olowo, "Nigerian Cultural Attitudes to the Dog" in Roy Willis (ed.), Signifying Animals: Human Meaning in the Natural World, 1994, N.Y.: Routledge.

Paul, E.S. and J.A.Serpell, "Childhood pet keeping and attitudes in young adulthood," Animal Welfare  2 (1993): 321-337.

Plous, S., "Psychological Mechanisms in the Human Use of Animals"  Journal of Social Issues  49 (1993): 11-52.

Sanders, Clinton R., "Understanding dogs: caretakers' attributions of mindedness in canine-human relationships." Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 22 (1993): 205-226.

Serpell, James and Elizabeth Paul, "Pets and the development of positive attitudes toward animals" in Aubrey Manning and James Serpell, Animals and Human Society, 1994, N.Y.: Routledge.

Willis, Roy (ed.) Signifying Animals: Human Meaning in the Natural World, 1994, N.Y.: Routledge.
 

How is the Human/Animal Relationship Studied?

*Arluke, Arnold and Clinton Sanders, "Learning from Animals" in Regarding Animals, 1996, Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Birke, Lynda, Feminism, Animals, and Science (1994) Philadelphia: Open University Press.

*Boyd-Heger, Diane, "Living with wolves" in Linda Hogan, Deena Metzger, and Brenda Patterson (eds.) Intimate Nature: The Bond Between Women and Nature, 1998, N.Y.: The Ballantine Publishing Group.

Fouts, Roger, Next of Kin: What Chimpanzees Have Taught Me About Who We Are, 1997, N.Y.: William Morrow and Company, Inc.

*Frohoff, Toni, "Beyond Species" in Linda Hogan, Deena Metzger, and Brenda Patterson (eds.) Intimate Nature: The Bond Between Women and Nature, 1998, N.Y.: The Ballantine Publishing Group.

Hearne, Vicki, "A taxonomy of knowing: animals captive, free-ranging, and at liberty" in Arien Mack (ed.) Humans and Other Animals, 1999, Columbus: Ohio University Press.

Kellert, Stephen R., "Perceptions of animals in America" in R.J.Hoage (ed.) Perceptions of Animals in American Culture, 1989, Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

*Lockwood, Randall, "Anthropomorphism is not a four letter word" in R.J.Hoage (ed.) Perceptions of Animals in American Culture 1989, Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

*Masson, Jeffrey Moussaieff, "Unfeeling Brutes" in When Elephants Weep: the Emotional Lives of Animals 1995, N.Y.: Delacorte Press.

Rowan, Andrew, "Scientists and animals research: Dr. Jekyll or Mr. Hyde?" in Arien Mack (ed.) Humans and Other Animals, 1999, Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
 

Human/Animal Interaction as Symbolic Interaction

*Alger, Janet M. and Steven F. Alger, "Beyond Mead: symbolic interaction between humans and felines"  Society and Animals 5 (1997): pp. 65-81.

*Arnold Arluke and Clinton Sanders,  "Speaking for dogs" in Regarding Animals, 1996, Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Eddy, Timothy J., Gordon G. Gallup, Jr., and Daniel J. Povinelli, "Attribution of cognitive states to animals: anthropomorphism in comparative perspective" Journal of Social Issues 49 (1993): pp. 87-101.

Robins, Douglas M., Clinton Sanders and Spencer E. Cahill, "Dogs and their people: pet facilitated interaction in a public setting." Journal of Contemporary Ethnology 20 (1991):3-25.

Sanders, Clinton R., "Understanding dogs: caretakers' attributions of mindedness in canine-human relationships." Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 22 (1993):205-226.

*Sanders, Clinton, "Animal abilities and human-animal interaction" in Understanding Dogs, 1999, Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
 

The History of the Animal/Human Bond

Clutton-Brock Juliet, "The unnatural world: behavioral aspects of humans and animals in the process of domestication" in Aubrey Manning and James Serpell, Animals and Human Society, 1994, N.Y.: Routledge.

Cohen, Ester, "Animals in medieval perceptions: the image of the ubiquitous other" in Aubrey Manning and James Serpell, Animals and Human Society, 1994, N.Y.: Routledge.

Hendrickson, Robert, More Cunning Than Man: A Complete History of the Rat and Its Role in Human Civilization, 1983, N.Y.:Kensington Books.

*Ingold, Tim, "From trust to domination: an alternative history of human-animal relations" in Aubrey Manning and James Serpell, Animals and Human Society, 1994, N.Y.: Routledge.

Keet, Kathleen, The Beast in the Boudoir: Petkeeping in Nineteenth Century Paris, 1994, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Klinghammer, Erich, "The wolf: fact and fiction" in R.J.Hoage (ed.) Perceptions of Animals in American Culture 1989, Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Maehle, Andreas-Holger, "Cruelty and kindness to the 'brute creation': stability and change in the ethics of the man-animal relationship, 1600-1850" in Aubrey Manning and James Serpell, Animals and Human Society,
1994, N.Y.: Routledge.

Russow, Lilly-Marlene, "Changing Perceptions of animals: a philosophical view" in Aubrey Manning and James Serpell, Animals and Human Society, 1994, N.Y.:  Routledge

*Salisbury, Joyce E., The Beast Within: Animals in the Middle Ages, N.Y.: Routledge.

Schwabe, Calvin W., "Animals in the ancient world" in Aubrey Manning and James Serpell, Animals and Human Society, 1994, N.Y.: Routledge.

*Thomas, Elizabeth Marshall, The Tribe of the Tiger, 1994, N.Y.: Simon and Schuster.

*Thurston, Mary Elizabeth, "Feudal society, renaissance, and revolution" in, The Lost History of the Canine Race, 1996, Kansas City: Andrews and Mc Meel.
 

The Role of Animals in Maintaining Racism, Sexism, and Class Privilege

Antonio, Diane, "Of wolves and women" in Carol J. Adams and Josephine Donovan (eds.), Animals and Women: Feminist Theoretical Explorations, 1995, Durham: Duke University Press.

*Arluke, Arnold and Clinton Sanders, "Boundary Work in Nazi Germany" in Regarding Animals, 1996, Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Dunayer, Joan, "Sexist Words, Speciesist Roots" in Carol J. Adams and Josephine Donovan (eds.), Animals and Women: Feminist Theoretical Explorations, 1995, Durham: Duke University Press.

*Evans, Rhonda, DeAnn K. Gauthier, and Craig J. Forsyth, "Dogfighting: symbolic expression and validation of masculinity" Sex Roles 39(1998):825-838.

Kheel, Marti, "License to kill: an ecofeminist critique of hunters' discourse" in Carol J. Adams and Josephine Donovan (eds.), Animals and Women: Feminist Theoretical Explorations, 1995, Durham: Duke University
Press.

*Luke, Brian, "Violent love: hunting, heterosexuality, and the erotics of men's predation"   Feminist Studies 24(1998): 627-655.

*Noske, Barbara, "Anthropocentrism and androcentrism" and "The animal question in feminism" in Beyond Boundaries: Humans and Animals, 1997, London: Black Rose Books.

Ritvo, Harriet, "The animal connection" in James J. Sheehan and Morton Sosna (eds.), The Boundaries of Humanity: Humans, Animals, Machines, 1990, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Rogers, Katherine, "Cats as women/women as cats" in The Cat and the Human Imagination, Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

*Thurston, Mary Elizabeth, "Class aspirations" in The Lost History of the Canine Race, 1996, Kansas City: Andrews and Mc Meel.
 

Social Institutions:
Family and Health

Adams, Carol, "Woman-battering and harm to animals" in Carol J. Adams and Josephine Donovan (eds.), Animals and Women: Feminist Theoretical Explorations, 1995, Durham: Duke University Press.

*Ascione, Frank R., "Battered woman's reports of their partners' and their children's cruelty to animals"  Journal of Emotional Abuse 1 (1998): 119-33.

Gage, Geraldine, "Intergenerational continuity of attitudes and values about dogs." Anthrozoos 1 (1988): 232-239.

*Hendrickson, Robert, "Death rides a rat: a journal of the plague years, past and present"  in More Cunning Than Man: A Complete History of the Rat and Its Role in Human Civilization, 1983, N.Y.:Kensington Books.

Katcher, Aaron, "How companion animals make us feel" in R.J.Hoage (ed.) Perceptions of Animals in American Culture 1989, Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Kellert, Stephen R., "Childhood cruelty toward animals among criminals and non-criminals." Human Relations 38 (1985): 1113-1129.

*Paul, E.S., and J.A. Serpell, "Childhood petkeeping and attitudes in young adulthood." Animal Welfare 2 (1993): 321-337.

Sanders, Clinton, "The everyday dog owner: knowing and living with dogs" in Understanding Dogs: Living and Working with Canine Companions, 1999, Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

*Siegel, Judith M., "Companion animals in sickness and in health" Journal of Social Issues 49 (1993): 157-167.

Sussman, Marvin B. (ed.) Pets in the Family , published as Marriage and Family Review 8 (1985).

Thurston, Mary Elizabeth, "Saying goodbye" in The Lost History of the Canine Race, 1996, Kansas City: Andrews and Mc Meel.

*Veever. Jean E., "The social meaning of pets"  Marriage and Family Review 8 (1985): 11-30.
 

The Role of Animals in the Economic Institution as Consumers, Workers, and Commodities

*Alexander, Shana, "In zoos and in circuses" in The Astonishing Elephant, 2000, N.Y.: Random House.

*Animal Welfare Institute, "Inside the dog dealing business" and "The primate trade" in  The Animal Dealers: Evidence of Abuse of Animals in the Commercial Trade, 1952-1997, no date of publication.

*Darden, Donna K. and Steven Worden, "Marketing deviance: the selling of cockfighting" Society and Animals 4 (1996): 211-231.

*Noske, Barbara, "The animal industrial complex" in Beyond Boundaries: Humans and Animals, 1997, London: Black Rose Books.

*Thurston, Mary Elizabeth "The way to a dog's heart" in The Lost History of the Canine Race, 1996, Kansas City: Andrews and Mc Meel.
 

Animals in Human Politics

*Alexander, Shana," In war and in history." in The Astonishing Elephant, 2000, N.Y.: Random House.

Beirne, Piers, "The law is an ass: reading E.P.Evans' The Medieval Prosecution and Capital Punishment of Animals," Society and Animals 2 (1994):27-46.

Cazaux, Geertrui, "Legitimating the entry of 'the animal issue' into (critical) criminology" Humanity and Society 22 (1998):365-385.

Kellert, Steven, "Attitudes, knowledge and behavior toward wildlife among the industrial superpowers" in Aubrey Manning and James Serpell, Animals and Human Society, 1994, N.Y.: Routledge.

*Linden, Eugene, "Preface" in The Parrot's Lament, 1999, N.Y.: Dutton.

*Patterson, Francine and Wendy Gordon "The case for the personhood of gorillas" in Linda Hogan, Deena Metzger, and Brenda Patterson (eds.) Intimate Nature: The Bond Between Women and Nature, 1998, N.Y.: The
Ballantine Publishing Group.

Tannenbaum, Jerrold, "Animals and the law: property, cruelty, rights," Social Research 62 (1995): 539-607.

*Thurston, Mary Elizabeth, "Canine emancipation" and "The dogs of war" in The Lost History of the Canine Race, 1996, Kansas City: Andrews and Mc Meel.

*Wise, Steven M., "Border crossings," "What are legal rights?" and "Liberty and Equality" in Rattling the Cage, 2000, Cambridge, Mass.: Perseus Press.
 

Animals in Religion

*Alexander, Shana, "In religion and in myth" in The Astonishing Elephant, 2000, N.Y.: Random House.

*Rogers, Katherine,  "Agents of the devil" in The Cat and the Human Imagination, Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

 *Salisbury, Joyce E., "Animals as human exemplars" in The Beast Within: Animals in the Middle Ages, N.Y.: Routledge.
 

Animals in Sports

Cartmill, Matt, "Hunting and humanity in western thought" in Arien Mack (ed.) Humans and Other Animals, 1999, Columbus: Ohio State University Press.

*Forsyth, Craig J., and Rhonda D. Evans, "Dogmen: the rationalization of deviance" Society and Animals 6 (1998): 203-218.

*Kerouwac, Jack, "Jack Kerouac at a Mexican bullfight" in Lonesome Traveler ,1989, N.Y.: Grove Press.

*Kheel, Marti, "License to kill: an ecofeminist critique of hunters' discourse," in Carol J. Adams and Josephine Donovan (eds.) Animals and Women: Feminist Theoretical Explorations 1995, Durham, North Carolina: Duke
University Press.
 

The Future of Animal/Human Relationships: Balancing Perspectives on Policy Issues

*Arluke, Arnold and Clinton Sanders,  "The sociozoological scale" and "Conclusion: sharing the world with feeling creatures" in  Regarding Animals, 1996, Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

*Berry, Bonnie, "Human and non-human animal rights and oppression: an evolution toward equality" Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology 25 (1997): 155-160.

Blum, Deborah, The Monkey Wars, 1994, N.Y.: Oxford University Press.

Burghardt, Gordon M. and Harold A. Herzog, Jr., "Animals, evolution, and ethics" in R.J. Hoage, ed., Perceptions of Animals in American Culture, 1989, Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

*Croke, Vicki, et al., "A consideration of policy implications: a panel discussion" in Arien Mack, Humans and Other Animals, 1999, Columbus: Ohio State University Press.

Davis, Karen, "Thinking like a chicken: farm animals and the feminine connection" in Carol J. Adams and Josephine Donovan (eds.), Animals and Women: Feminist Theoretical Explorations, 1995, Durham: Duke University Press.

Kappeler, Susanne, "Speciesism, racism, nationalism.or the power of scientific subjectivity" in Carol J. Adams and Josephine Donovan (eds.), Animals and Women: Feminist Theoretical Explorations, 1995, Durham: Duke University Press.

Luke, Brian, "Taming ourselves or going feral? Toward a nonpatriarchal metaethic of animal liberation" in Carol J. Adams and Josephine Donovan (eds.), Animals and Women: Feminist Theoretical Explorations, 1995, Durham: Duke University Press.

Macintyre, Alasdair, Dependent Rational Animals: Why Human Beings Need the Virtues, 1999, Chicago: Open Court.

*Masson, Jeffrey Moussaieff, "Conclusion: sharing the world with feeling creatures" in When Elephants Weep: the Emotional Lives of Animals 1995, N.Y.: Delacorte Press.

*Midgley, Mary, "Bridge-building at last" in Aubrey Manning and James Serpell, Animals and Human Society, 1994, N.Y.: Routledge.

Sheehan, James, and Morton Sosna (eds.) The Boundaries of Humanity: Humans, Animals, Machines, 1990,  Berkeley: University of California Press.

Thurston, Mary Elizabeth, "History in the making" in " in The Lost History of the Canine Race, 1996, Kansas City: Andrews and Mc Meel.

*Wise, Steven M., "The problem with being a thing" and "Trapped in a universe that no longer exists" in Rattling the Cage, 2000, Cambridge, Mass.: Perseus Press.

 

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