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Animals and Society Syllabi

Garry Marvin

Animals, Culture & Society

SSPH20.108A
Autumn Semester 2000

School of Sociology and Social Policy
University of Surrey Roehampton

 

Humans share their social and cultural environments with a wide variety of animals and for a wide variety of purposes. Animals are domesticated and used for food, clothing, and transport; hunted for subsistence and sport; worshipped, sacrificed, tabooed, and vilified in religions; represented in art, literature and film; incorporated into homes and families as pets; used as models for humans in a range of experimental situations; they are anthropomorphised; put on display in zoos and natural history museums and made to entertain in circuses; are the focus of debates about human nature in moral philosophy and theology; and they are studied in a wide range of scientific practices.  This course explores the spaces which animals occupy in human social cultural worlds and the interactions humans have with them. Central to this course will be an exploration of the ways in which animal lives intersect with human societies in a cross-cultural examination of how different human groups construct a range of identities for themselves and for others in terms of animals.
 

COURSE ORGANISATION

Animals, Culture and Society has only been introduced recently. This course booklet indicates the major areas which will be explored but, just as the whole field of the interdisciplinary study of animal/human relations is beginning to define itself, we too will be looking for fresh approaches, innovative ideas and novel perspectives. There is no fixed body of information which must be learnt, there are no theoretical perspectives which apply only to this area and there are, as yet, no texts which summarise the whole field. This gives the course the great advantage of flexibility and the possibility of creative intellectual thinking.

The sessions will be divided into three major strands. Each will have a lecture, a general discussion and a session of group presentations.

Those participating in the course will be divided into small groups at the beginning and these groups will work together towards the presentation of their projects. Group presentations can be about anything related to the course even if it is not a topic covered in the lecture slots. Possible topics could include:

Animal rights
Animals in advertisements
The politics of meat
The uses of animals
A particular animal and its relations with human society
Animal symbolism
Experimenting with animals
Animals in sports
Animal representations in a particular piece of literature/set of literature
Companion animals
Animals in human language
Conservation
The politics of fur
Animals on display

Groups do not need to pick one of these and it will be much more positive if they pick a topic because they have an interest in it. The aim here is to develop ideas, arguments, new perspectives and interesting connections. The chosen topic should be confirmed with the course convenor.
 

ASSESSEMENT

The Assessment is in two parts:

1. Students are required to submit one essay of between 2000 – 2500 words. This will represent 85% of the total grade for the course. No set titles have been given here so that each student is able to chose a topic which interests them. These must be discussed with the course convenor. Marking for this work will be according to the guidelines set out in the Sociology Programme Handbook. Essays should be submitted by 4pm on Monday 18th December 2000.

2. Each student will also be required to participate in a seminar presentation which will represent 15% of the total grade. The grade for the group presentation will be given to the group and all students in that group will therefore receive the same grade.

NB. Students must pass both elements of the assessment.
 

COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of the course the student will have:

(i) knowledge of broad range of contemporary issues about the relationships between animals and the human world;

(ii) an understanding of how sociological and anthropological perspectives and theories can be used to explore these issues;

(iii) learnt how to bring controlled academic rigour to the study of emotive subjects;

(iv) the ability to make presentations to their peers on issues which are of present social concern.
 

SUBMISSION OF COURSEWORK

Students are reminded that coursework must be handed in to the School Office on or before the submission date. This date is not negotiable and no extension s are allowed. Please refer to section 7 of the Sociology Programme Handbook for a clear statement of the policy on coursework submission.

If you think your personal circumstances are such that even with good time-management you may not be able to adhere to the coursework requirements for this module and the submission date, you should think carefully about whether this module is the right one for you. The USR modular system allows considerable flexibility for students to choose modules with different forms of assessment.

If severe unforeseen circumstances (such as your own sudden illness or the illness of a close and dependent relative) make it impossible for you to adhere to the submission date, you should, as soon as possible, write a letter of explanation with supporting documentary evidence to the School Administrator. This evidence will be kept in a confidential file and your case will be considered at the Programme Board of examiners.

As Section 7 in the Sociology Programme Handbook makes clear, your module tutor is not able to agree an extension date with you.
 

READING AND LITERATURE

There is no text which adequately covers all the themes and topic of the course but one book, which has been published recently, does cover many of them in a readable and accessible style. The text is:

Adrian Franklin (1999) Animals and Modern Cultures: A Sociology of Human-Animal Relations in Modernity London: Sage Publications

This is a highly recommended text but it is not compulsory for you to buy it. If you are going to invest in a book though, this is the one to choose.

The LRC already has a wide range of books covering the topics of this course and there has been considerable investment in new books specifically for the course. These should be in the LRC by the beginning of term. Because of the anticipated numbers for this course the newest books have been put on restricted loan so that all students will have a chance of consulting them.

Included here is a list of key texts which can be found in the LRC. Further reading lists, relating to specific topics, will be prepared during the course.
 

INDICATIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adams, C (1984) Neither Man nor Beast: Feminism and the Defense of Animals New York: Continuum

Adams, C (1990) The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist Critical Theory Cambridge: Polity

Adams Frost, L (1991) “Pets and Lovers: The Human-Companion Animal Bond in Contemporary Literary Prose’ in Journal of Popular Culture Vol 25 No1 pp39-55

Alford, V (1978) The Hobby Horse and Other Animal Masks London: Merlin Press

Aristotle (1942 edition) Generation of Animals Cambridge Mass: Harvard University Press

Baker, S (1993) Picturing the Beast: Animals, Identity and Representation Manchester: Manchester University Press

Barnett, S (1967) “Instinct’ and “Intelligence’: The Science of Behviour in Animals and Man London: MacGibbon and Kee

Barton, M (1987) Animal Rights London: Watts

Benton, J (1992) The Medieval Menagerie: Animals in the Art of the Middle Ages London: Abbeville Press

Boakes, R (1984) From Darwin to Behaviourism: Psychology and the Minds of Animals Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Bostock, S (1993) Zoos and Animal Rights: The Ethics of Keeping Animals London: Routledge

Bourdillion, M F C  and Fortes, M (eds) (1980) Sacrifice London: Academic Press

Budiansky, S (1997)  The Covenant of the Wild London: Phoenix

Budiannsky, S (1999) If a Lion Could Talk: How Animals Think London: Phoenix Press

Bright, M (1984) Animal Language London: BBC Publications

Bulmer, R (1973) “Why the Cassowary is not a Bird’ in Douglas, M Rules and Meanings London: Harmondsworth

Byrne, R (1995) The Thinking Ape: Evolutionary Origins of Intelligence Oxford: Oxford University Press

Candland, D (1993) Feral Children and Clever Children: Reflections on Human Nature Oxford: Oxford University Press

Carruthers, P (1992) The Animals Issue: Moral Theory in Practice Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Cherfas, J (1989) The Hunting of the Whale Harmondsworth: Penguin

Clark, S and S Lyster (1997) Animals and Their Moral Standing London: Routledge

Clarke, P (ed) (1990) Political Theory and Animal Rights London: Pluto Press

Clutton-Brock, J (1981) Domesticated Animals London: Heinmann

Cornwall, I (1968) Prehistoric Animals and Their Hunters London: Faber and Faber

Darwin, C (1965) The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Davis, S (1997) Spectacular Nature: Corporate Culture and the Sea World Experience Berkeley: University of California Press

Dawkins, M (1993) Through Our Eyes Only?  The Search for Animal Consciousness Oxford: Freeman

Dekkers, M (1994) Dearest Pet London: Virago

Dent, A (1976) Animals in Art London: Phaidon

Douglas, M (1970) Natural Symbols Harmondsworth: Penguin

Douglas, M (1975) Purity and Danger London: Routledge

Douglas, M (1978) Implicit Meaning London: RKP

Eaton, J (1995) The Circle of Creation: Animals in the Light of the Bible London: SCM

Else, J and Lee, P (eds) (1984) Primate Ecology and Conservation Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Evans, D (1992) A History of Nature Conservation in Britain London: Routledge

Fardon, R (1999) Mary Douglas London: Routledge

Fiddes, N (1991) Meat: A Natural Symbol London: Routledge

Fossey, D (1997) Search for the Great Apes Sky Broadcasting (in LRC media collection)

Fout, J (1992) Forbidden History, the State, Society and the Regulation of Sexuality in Modern Europe Chicago: Chicago University Press

Franklin, A (1999) Animals and Modern Cultures: A Sociology of Human-Animal Relations in Modernity London: Sage

Frey, R G (1983) Rights, Killing, and Suffering: Moral Vegetarianism and Applied Ethics Oxford: Basil Blackwell

Fudge, E (1999) At the Borders of the Human: Beasts, Bodies and Natural Philosophy in Early Modern England Basingstoke: Macmillan

Fudge, E (2000) Perceiving Animals: Humans and Beasts in Early Modern English Culture Basingstoke: Macmillan

Fuller, R (ed) (1981) Fellow Mortals: An Anthology of Animal Verse Plymouth: Macdonald and Evans

Gates, P (1997) Animal Communication Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

George, W (1962) Animal Geography London: Heinmann

George, W (1969) Animals and Maps London: Secker & Warburg

Goodall, J (1971) In the Shadow of Man London: Collins

Goodall, J (1991) Through the Window: Thirty Years With the Chimpanzees of the Gombe London: Pan Books

Halliday, T, and Slater, P (eds) (1970) Communication Oxford: Blackwell Scientific

Haraway, D (1991) Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature London: Free Association Press

Harris, M (1985) Good to Eat: Riddles of Food and Culture London: Allen and Unwin

Hediger, H (1970) Man and Animal in the Zoo London: Routledge and Keegan Paul

Hicks, C (1993) Animals in Early Medieval Art Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press

Hill, J (1996) The Case for Vegetarianism: Philosophy for a Small Planet Lanham Md: Rowman and Littlefield

Hinde R (1970) Animal behaviour: A Synthesis of Ethology abnd Comparative Psychology London: McGraw-Hill

Houston, W (1993) Purity and Monotheism: Clean and Unclean Animals in Biblical Law Sheffield: JSOT Press

Hubert, H and Mauss, M (1981) Sacrifice: Its Nature and Functions Chicago: Midway Reprints

Hughes, T (1995) Collected Animal Poems London: Faber and Faber

Hume, CW (1957) The Status of Animals in the Christian Religion London: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare

Humphrey, (1985) Roman Circuses: Arenas for Chariot Racing London: Batsford

Ingold, T (ed) (1994) What is an Animal? London: Routledge

Kean, H (1999) Animal Rights: Political and Social Change in Britain Since 1800 London: Reaktion Books

Koebner, L (1994) Zoo Book: The Evolution of Wildlife Conservation Centres New York: T Doherty Press

Lang, A (ed) (1896) The Animal Story Book London: Longmans

Leahy, M (1994) Against Liberation: Putting Animals in Perspective London: Routledge

Lévi-Strauss, C (1972) The Savage Mind London: Weidenfield and Nicolson

Lévi-Strauss, C (1973) Totemism Harmondsworth: Penguin

Lévi-Strauss, C (1986) The Raw and the Cooked Harmondsworth: Penguin

Lilequist, J (1992) “Peasants Against Nature: Crossing the Boundaries Between Man and Animals in17th and 18th  Century Sweden’ in Fout, J (1992) Forbidden History, the State, Society and the Regulation of Sexuality in Modern Europe Chicago: Chicago University Press

Linden, E (1976) Apes, Men and Language Harmondsworth: Penguin

Linzey, A (1994) Animal Theology London: SCM Press

Lodrick, D (1981) Sacred Cows, Sacred Places: Origins and Survivals of Animal Homes in India Berkely: University of California Press

Lorenz, K (1970) Studies in Animal and Human Behaviour London: Methuen

Lucie-Smith, E (1998) Zoo: Animals in Art London: Aurum Press

Mcgrath, M (1996) Beatrix Potter and Her World University of Surrey PhD Thesis

Mack, A (ed) (1999) Humans and Other Animals Columbus: Ohio State University Press

Manning, A and Serpell, J (1994) Animals and Human Society: Changing Perspectives London: Routledge

Marvin, G (1994) Bullfight Uurbana: University of Illinois Press

Mitchell, R W et al (eds) (1997) Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes and Animals Albany: State University of New York Press

Morris, B (1998) The Power of Animals: An Ethnography Oxford: Berg

Morris, D (1967) The Naked Ape: A Zoologist’s Study of the Human Animal London: Jonathan Cape

Mullan, B and Marvin G (1999) Zoo Culture Urbana: University of Illinois Press

Orlan, B (1998) The Human Use of Animals: Case Studies in Ethical Choice Oxford: Oxford University Press

Premark, D (1986) Gavagai! The Future of the Animal Language Controversy Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press

Quiatt, D (1993) Primate Behaviour: Information, Social Knowledge and the Evolution of Culture Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Ritvo, H (1987) The Animal Estate: The English and Other creatures in the Victorian Age Cambridge Mass: Harvard University Press

Roberts, A (1995) Animals in African Art New York: Museum for African Art

Robins, D et al (1991) “Dogs and Their People: Pet-Facilitated Interaction in a Public Setting’ in Journal of Contemporary Ethnography Vol 20 No1 Aprill 1991 pp3-25

Rodd, R (1990) Biology, Ethics and Animals Oxford: Clarendon

Russ, A (ed) (1996) Reaching Into Thought: The Minds of the Great Apes Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Sandys-Winsch, G (1984) Animal Law London: Shaw

Schmitt, J-C (1983) The Holy Greyhound: Guinefort, Healer of Children Since the Thirteenth Century Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Schochet, E (1984) Animal Life in Jewish Tradition: Attitudes and Relationships New York: Ktav

Scruton, R (1996) Animal Rights and Wrongs London: Demos

De Silva, A et al (eds) (1965) Man and Animal London: Educational Productions

Serpell (1996) In the Company of Animals Cambridge: Cambridge University Press/Canto

Shill M (1986) “The Family Pet’ in Representations 15 pp123-56

Singer, P (1991) Animal Liberation London: Thorsons

Speake, G Anglo-Saxon Animal Art and its Germanic Background Oxford: Clarendon Press

Tambiah, S (1973) “Classification of Animals in Thailand’ in: Douglas, M Rules and Meanings London: Harmondsworth

Tattersall, I (1998) Becoming Human: Evolution and Human Uniqueness Oxford: Oxford University Press

Taylor, B (1955) Animal Painting in England From Barlow to Landseer London: Peguin Books

Taylor J (1986) Beatrix Potter: Artist, Storyteller and Countrywoman London: Warne

Thomas, K (1983) Man and the Natural World: Changing Attitudes in England 1500 – 1800 London: Allen Lane

Thorpe, W (1974) Animal and Human Nature London: Methuen

De Waal, F (1983) Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex Among Apes  London Unwin

De Waal, F (1998) Bonobo: The Forgotten Ape Berkeley: University of California Press

Warren, A and Goldsmith, F (1983) Conservation in Perspective Chichester: Wiley

West, T (1972) Heros on Horseback: The Story of the Pony Express Glasgow: Blackie

Wolch, J and Emel, J (1998) Animal Geographies: Place, Politics and Identity in the Nature-Culture Borderlands London: Verso

Wright, R (1996) The Moral Animal: Evolutionary Psychology and Everyday Life London: Abacus
 
 

THE WEB

There is a huge range of potentially useful and interesting sites on the web. Try for example society + animals and culture + animals as a way in. It would be helpful if you could note the locations of any sites which have interested you. These can be added to later literature lists.

 

POTENTIALLY USEFUL SITES

Society and Animal journal

http://arrs.envirolink.org/psyeta/sa

 Animal rights sites

http://www.isleuth.com/animal-r.html

 

http://www.altculture.com/aentries/a/animalxlib.html

Sites advocating the rights of indigenous peoples to hunt whales, seals etc

http://www.highnorth.no

Key sites for leading into many indigenous peoples’ web sites

http://www.itv.se/~boreale/aelmetjh.html

NB If you find difficulties with this go to and look for the site labeled “Indigenous People”

http://www.itv.se

The World Zoo Organisation 

http://www.iudzg.org

 

http://www.5tigers.org.org/wzcs.html

The World Conservation Union

http://www.iucn.org

Companion animals - research etc

http://www.petsforum.com/deltasociety

Pro - field sports (UK) site

http://www.countryside-alliance.org

Link site for many anti-hunting etc sites

http://arrs.envirolink.org

Feminists for Animal Rights

http://arrs.envirolink.org.far

Fur Issues

http://www.furs.com

Very important link to many animal issues

http://www.mtd.com/tasty/index.html

 

COURSE OUTLINE

Week One  Animals and Humans - The Great Divide?

The first session introduces the range of topics and issues to be covered in the course. Not only will we consider how animals are related with human cultures, and societies but we will also consider the contested categories and notions of “human’ and “animal’. Are humans in some way unique in the animal world and if so, in what ways? Although it might seem obvious, what exactly does it mean for something to be an animal?

Franklin, A (1999) Animals and Modern Cultures: A Sociology of Human-Animal Relations in Modernity London: Sage Publications

Midgeley, M (1989) Beast and Man: The Roots of Human Nature London: Methuen

Tattersall, I (1998) Becoming Human: Evolution and Human Uniqueness Oxford: Oxford University Press

Thorpe, W (1974) Animal and Human Nature London: Methuen
 

Week Two  The Wild and the Tame

Here we will consider the processes of domestication and how certain animal species were brought into close association with human societies. In what ways have they been tamed, bred and trained? For what purposes? Are these symbiotic relationships or are they, in some ways, exploitative? How have these relationships affected the development of human societies?

Budiansky, S (1997)  The Covenant of the Wild London: Phoenix

Clutton-Brock, J (1981) Domesticated Animals London: Heinmann

George, W (1962) Animal Geography London: Heinmann

Ingold, T (ed) (1994) What is an Animal? London: Routledge
 

Week Three  The World of Meat

One of the key relationships between animals, both wild and domesticated, and humans is that humans kill them in order to consume them. All societies express, in different ways, concern about this relationship. Not all animals are regarded as appropriate sources of food. For example, some are regarded as too close to humans to be acceptable as food while others are regarded as too disgusting to be eaten. Why should an animal be “tasty” in one society and tabooed in another? What exactly does it mean to turn a living creature into “meat”? What taboos and moral concerns do human societies express about killing a d eating other animals?

Adams, C (1990) The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist Critical Theory Cambridge: Polity

Douglas, M (1978) Purity and Danger London: Routledge

Fiddes, N (1991) Meat: A Natural Symbol London: Routledge

Harris, M (1986) Good to Eat: Riddles of Food and Culture London: Allen and Unwin

Hill, J (1995) The Case for Vegetarianism: Philosophy for a Small Planet Lanham Md: Roman and Littlefield

Leach, E (1972) “Anthropological Aspects of Language: Animal Categories and Verbal Abuse” in: Maranda, P (ed) (1972) Mythology Harmondsworth: Penguin Books

Lévi-Strauss, C (1985) The Raw and the Cooked Harmondsworth: Penguin Books

Segal, A (1973) “Breach of One Rule Breaches the System of Rules” in: Douglas, M (ed) Rules and Meanings Harmondsworth: Penguin Books
 

Week Four  Animals in Religious Thought and Practice

The religions of all societies incorporate animals (both negatively and positively) into their cosmologies, beliefs, practices and symbolism. Animals are worshipped, made the object of taboos, sacrificed, and associated with gods, spirits and other supernatural beings. In this session we will explore how religious thought and practice makes sense of the animal world and uses it of comment on the human condition.

Bourdillion, MFC and Mayer Fortes (eds) (1980) Sacrifice London: Academic Press

Bulmer, R (1989) “The Uncleanness of the Birds of Leviticus and Deuteronomy” in Man Vol 24, No 3, pp 434 - 453

Douglas, M (1975) “Animals in Lele Religious Symbolism’ in Douglas M (1975) Implicit Meanings London: Routledge

Eaton, J (1995) The Circle of Creation: Animals in the Light of the Bible London: SCM

Hubert, M and Mauss, M (1981) Sacrifice: Its Nature and Functions Chicago: Midway Reprint

Lévi-Strauss, C (1973) Totemism Harmondsworth: Penguin

Lewis, I (1991) “The Spider and the Pangolin” in Man Vol 25, No 3, pp 513 - 527

Linzey, A (1994) Animal Theology London: SCM Press

Lodrick, D (1981) Sacred Cows, Sacred Places: Origins and Survivals of Animal Homes in India Berkeley: University of California Press

Robbins, P (1998) “Shrines and Butchers: Animals as Deities, Capital, and Meat in Contemporary North India” in Wolch, J and Emel, J (eds) Animal Geographies London: Verso

Ruel, M (1990) “Non-Sacrificial Ritual Killing” in Man Vol 25, No 2, pp 323 - 335

Schochet, E (1984) Animal Life in Jewish Tradition: Attitudes and Relationships New York: Ktav

Smith, B (1991) “Classifying Animals and Humans in Ancient India” in Man Vol 25, No 3 pp 527 - 548
 

Week Five  The Moral Status of Animals. Animal Rights?

In recent decades the issue of animal rights has engaged the attention, emotions and thoughts of a wide public. In many western societies animals have come to be regarded as an oppressed minority and various organisations have set about arguing for, and fighting, for a change in this status. This session explores the development of the idea of animal rights and its impact on movements dedicated to animal welfare and “liberation’. Once again a central concern will be an exploration of contested ideas of what constitutes an animal/animality in contrast to human/humanity.

Adams, C (1984) Neither man nor Beast: Feminism and the Defence of Animals New York: Continuum

Barton, M (1987) Animal Rights London: Watts

Clark, S and S Lyster (1997) Animals and Their Moral Standing London: Routledge

 Dolins, F (ed) (1999) Attitudes to Animals: Views on Animal Welfare Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Kean, H (1999) Animal Rights: Political and Social Change in Britain Since 1800 London: Reaktion Books

Leahy, M (1994) Against Liberation: Putting Animals in Perspective London: Routledge

Midgeley, M (1989) Beast and Man: The Roots of Human Nature London: Methuen

Scruton, R (1996) Animal Rights and Wrongs London: Demos

Singer, P (1991) Animal Liberation London: Thorsons
 

Week Six  Emotions, Thoughts and Words. Animal Communication/Human Language?

All animals communicate with members of their own species for reasons of biological necessity and survival. Is there though, something unique about human language as a system of communication? The debates about whether humans are unique in their capacity for self-reflexive/abstract thought expressed in language has been questioned in much language work with primates. The debates around this issue are perhaps fundamental in establishing or disestablishing human uniqueness.

Byrne, R (1995) The Thinking Ape: Evolutionary Origins of Intelligence Oxford: Oxford University Press

Bright, M (1984) Animal Language London BBC Publications

Candland, D (1993) Feral Children and Clever Children: Reflections on Human Nature Oxford: Oxford University Press

Gates, P (1997) Animal Communication Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Halliday T, and Slater, P (eds) (1970) Communication Oxford: Blackwell Scientific

Premark, D (1985) Gavagai! The Future of the Animal Language Controversy Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press
 

Week Seven  Pseudo Humans? Pets and Anthropomorphism

Anthropomorphism is, in this context, the attribution of supposedly human qualities to non-human animals and is perhaps expressed in its most complex for in human relationships with their pets. Pet - keeping, as a cultural practice, involves the incorporation of animals into human families and human domestic space. What is expressed in these relationships and what does it tell us about human societies and cultures?

Adams Frost, L (1991) “Pets and Lovers: The Human-Companion Animal Bond in Contemporary Literary Prose” in Journal of Popular Culture Vol 25 No1 pp39-55

Dekkers, M (1994) Dearest Pet, London: Virago

Dick, P (1972) Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? London: Panther

Goodall, J (1971) In the Shadow of Man London: Collins

Goodall, J (1991) Through A Window: Thirty Years With the Chimpanzees of the Gombe London: Pan Books

Liliequist, J (1992) “Peasants against Nature: Crossing the Boundaries between Man and Animal in the 17th and 18th Century Sweden’ in Fort J. (1992) Forbidden History, the “ Society and the Regulation of Sexuality in Modern Europe Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Mitchell, R. W et al (1997) Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes and Animals Albany: State University of New York Press

Ritvo, H (1987) The Animal Estate: The English and Other Creatures in the Victorian Age Cambridge Mass: Harvard University Press

Robins, D et al (1991) “Dogs and Their People: Pet-Facilitated Interaction in a Public Setting’ in Journal of Contemporary Ethnography Vol 20 No1 April 1991 pp3-25

Shill M (1986) “The Family Pet” in Representations 15 pp123-56
 

Week Eight  Animals on Exhibition

Animals do not represent themselves in any “natural’ way to human societies – they are given cultural meaning – but human societies certainly make representations of them in a variety of ways. In this session we look at menageries, zoos, animal them parks and natural history museums. The main theme will be that the cultural representation and exhibition of animals, particularly of “wild’ animals, can be interpreted as a story which humans tell about themselves through the medium of animals.

Bostock, S (1993) Zoos and Animal Rights: The Ethics of Keeping Animals London: Routledge

Hediger, H (1970) Man and Animal in the Zoo London: Routledge and Keegan Paul

Mullan, B and Marvin G (1999) Zoo Culture Urbana: University of Illinois Press

Ritvo, H (1987) The Animal Estate: The English and Other Creatures in the Victorian Age Cambridge Mass: Harvard University Press

Wolch, J (1998) “Zoöpolis”, in Wolch, J and Emel, J (eds) Animal Geographies: Place, Politics, and Identity in the Nature Culture Borderlands London: Verso
 

Week Nine  Animals in Art and Literature

This session continues the theme of expressive representations of animals in different cultures and different historical contexts.

Aesop (1959) Fables Harmondsworth: Penguin Books

Baker, S (1993) Picturing the Beast: Animals, Identity and Representation Manchester: Manchester University Press

Benton, J (1992) The Medieval Menagerie: Animals in the Art of the Middle Ages London: Abbeville Press

Dent, A (1976) Animals in Art London: Phaidon

Fuller, R (ed) 1981) Fellow Mortals: An Anthology of Animal Verse Plymouth: Macdonald and Evans

Grimm’s Fairy Tales (1959) London: Routledge and Kegan Paul

Hicks, C (1993) Animals in Early Medieval Art Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press

Hughes, T (1995) Collected Animal Poems London: Faber and Faber

Layton,R (1985) “The Cultural Context of Hunter-Gatherer Rock Art” In Man, Vol 20, No 3, pp  434 - 453

Lucie-Smith, E (1998) Zoo: Animals in Art London: Aurum Press

Mcgrath, M (1996) Beatrix Potter and Her World University of Surrey PhD Thesis

Mithen, S (1988) “To Hunt or to Paint: Animals and Art in the Upper Paleolithic” in Man Vol 24, No 2, pp 304 - 321

Orwell, G (1973) Animal Farm: A Fairy Story Harmondsworth: Penguin

Taylor, J (1986) Beatrix Potter: Artist, Storyteller and Countrywoman London: Warne
 

Week Ten  Animal Performances

A wide range of animals are made to perform, in a variety of ways, for human entertainment. They are made to race and fight against each other; some are ridden in a variety of performances and sports; made to do “tricks” in circuses; challenged by humans in events such as bullfights and rodeos and judged in their relations with other animals in events such as herding trials and hunting. What meanings are expressed in such performances and what can we understand from examining humans watching animals, and participating with animals, in these contexts?

Cartmill, M (1999) “Hunting and Humanity in Western Thought” in Mack A (ed) Humans and Other Animals Columbus: Ohio State University Press

Davis, S (1997) Spectacular Nature: Corporate Culture and the Sea World Experience Berkeley: University of California Press

Errington, F (1990) “The Rock Creek Rodeo: Excess and Constraint in Men’s Lives’ in American Ethnologist Vol 17, No 4, pp 628 - 645

Fernandez, J (1971) “Persuasions and Performances: Of the Beast in Every Body - And the Metaphors of Everyman” in Geertz, C (ed) Myth, Symbol and Culture American Academy of Science

Geertz, C (1971) “Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight” in Geertz, C (ed) Myth, Symbol and Culture American Academy of Arts and Sciences

Humphrey, J (1986) Roman Circuses: Arenas for Chariot Racing London: Batsford

Marvin, G (1994) Bullfight Urbana: University of Illinois Press

Peppe, R (1975) Circus! From Rome to Ringling Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press
 

Week Eleven  Conservation and the Animal Environment

The central them here will be that of conservation and environmental programmes related to animals. It is, perhaps, a taken for granted assumption among many people that it is a “good’ thing to preserve and conserve species but why should this be so? It is estimated that almost 90 per cent of all species which have ever existed are now extinct - how and why are decisions made now about which species deserve conservation now? Concern for conservation is cultural and social and must be understood s such. This session will consider the reasons for, and significance of, such concern.

Brown, L (1987) Conservation and Practical Morality Basingstoke: Macmillan

Gullo, A et al (1998) “The Cougar’s Tale” in Wolch, J and Emel, J Animal Geographies, London: Verso

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